types of scale insects

The information given here is for educational purposes only. Sooty mold on holly resulting from Florida wax scale infestation. Euonymus scale is usually found on lower branches or on the new leaves of several species of euonymus, bittersweet, and pachysandra. Cochineal scales ( Dactylopius spp. Scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out the sap. Two generations are commonly produced per year. Soft scale insects—These destructive pests are larger than armored scale. The distinction between these families is important because behavior and management of … Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Our trees. The glover scale is similar to the purple scale and can be found in mixed populations. Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. Pine needle scale / Late May Types Of Scale Insects. Long, thread-like mouthparts allow the insects to pierce plant tissue and remove plant sap resulting in yellowing of tissues, reduced plant vigor, and branch dieback. Instead it secretes a thin, transparent film, which does not totally cover the insect. Don’t have a shell, instead they secrete a cotton-like or waxy substance over their bodies for protection 5. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. Lecanium scale / Mid-June In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as "crawlers". Stop by, email, or call. Two generations are commonly produced per year. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. Building the urban forest for 2050. Thoroughly applying dormant oil in late fall or in early spring before leaves sprout will suffocate overwintering scales before they have a chance to mature and feed on trees. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. Pine Needle Scale is probably the most common armored scale found on conifers in the United States and Canada. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. Scale insects can be divided into two groups: armored scales and soft scales. View our Privacy Policy for more information. Most pest scales belong to the Diaspididae, Coccidae, and Pseudococcidae, but a few significant pests belong to other families, such as the Monophlebidae (especially polyphagous Icerya species; Fig. Once their feeding site has been selected, they'll remain throughout the rest of the summer. What Are Overwintering Pests and How To Prevent Them. In most cases, they are able to move short distances (but rarely do) and produ… This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms a 1/8-inch white, oystershell-shaped cover. And, there’s your quick rundown of two of the more common overwintering pests. Our future. The female deposits her eggs beneath herself on a twig of the host plant. All Rights Reserved. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Although many scale species from many families can be pests of ornamental plants the primary families are armored scales (Diaspididae), soft scales (Coccidae), and felt scales (Eriococcidae). Shaped like rounded bumps 4. But aphids are mostly a nuisance on plants. Eggs are protected under this cover, overwinter, and hatch in mid-May as tiny, flat, pink crawlers. Eggs hatch in spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, but gradually change to a glossy brown. One must remove the hardened wax cover to expose the body of the insect. If you have a heavy infestation outdoors, prune away the stems with the most scales. Juniper scale / Early July An adult beech scale insect has a soft body, is yellow in color, ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 millimeter long, and has an elliptical shape. They have a soft, furry covering and—unlike armored … Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Many scale species are serious crop pests. The best way to describe scale insects is as tiny bumps on tree branches and twigs. Serious plant pests are the San Jose scale, the oystershell scale, the scurfy scale, and the purple and red scale of citrus. Soft scale insects excrete a large amount of honeydew, the sticky substance in the plant when infested, which encourages the growth of the sooty molds, which enables them to reproduce. Others attack a variety of hosts such as white wax scale occurring on gardenias and citrus; and cottony cushion scale occurring on figs, rose, magnolias, grevilleas and citrus. Subscribe to the "The Sapling" on the Davey Blog for the latest tips to keep your outdoor space in tip-top shape throughout the year. Scale insects thrive in warm, dry environments. Timing is everything when it comes to treating scale insects. Insecticidal soaps can be effective against the crawler stage but usually have no effect on the adult scale. The female scale overwinters under its protective shell and deposits eggs in early spring under the scale covering. They get up close and personal with our plants in winter and hang out there until warmer days kick in. Adult females and nymphs do not have wings and have a round, oval or elongate and often humped appearance. How To Get Rid Of Scale Insects. Another difference … Males molt into a prepupa for a week and then emerge as winged adults. Some overwintering critters aren’t a cause for concern, but others need to be nipped in the bud for the good of our plants. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. Scales can often be seen if you flip a leaf upside down and check out where the leaf portion of the plant joins the stem. The scale overwinters in the egg stage under the females' protective cover. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. Credits: R.J. Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) Hollies are infested by many types of scales. Another difference is that the waxy cover on armored scales serves as a protective shell. Some scales can seriously damage their host, while other species do no apparent damage to plants even when scales are very abundant. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. In late summer, immature females return to twigs to overwinter. By continuing to use this site, you accept our use of cookies. Scale insects are usually divided into two groups: soft scale, and hard or armored scale. The two major types include armored scales (Family: There are two generations each year. In summer, female aphids produce young aphids that mature and reproduce in a matter of just a couple weeks. The pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. These crawlers search for suitable needles on which to feed and once settled, begin to form their protective armor. But, if these crawlers still give you the creeps, the best way to prevent them is to stop their cycle. Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. Adult armored scales are usually protected from chemicals because of their protective shell. The tiny sap-sucking pests hide under their protective scale while feeding and laying eggs. Eggs hatch beneath the females in late spring or early summer, and crawlers then migrate to leaves of the host plant to feed. There are other different types of scale and some scale insects are host specific, such as rose scale, white palm scale, gum tree scale and tea scale (camellias). However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case of armored scales, are covered with a protective shell that ranges from about 1/16-to-3/8-inches in size. The crawlers then migrate to feeding sites along the midrib and other prominent veins on the underside of leaves. The scale insects also have modified life cycles. However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case o… Scale Insects Common and widespread, scale insects vary in appearance and are often not even recognized as insects due to their atypical characteristics (figures 1 and 2). Euonymus scale / Early June, Some types of scale insect are economically valuable for the substances they can yield under proper husbandry. 2015). and yew (Taxus sp.). Armored scales, on the other hand, don’t make honeydew. Scale insects can look hemispherical, oval, or flat, and they can ruin a plant and stunt its growth by sucking out the sap. The amber to reddish-brown nymph overwinters on a branch. Excessive amounts of honeydew can attract black sooty mold fungus. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. There is one generation per year. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. In species where there are males, these males are short-lived and typically have wings. These materials (e.g., Pyriproxifen) kill insects kill, pesticides in this group should be sprayed at the begining Conserve natural enemies and kill armored scales on The sugary liquid attracts Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Types of scale insects. Check plants for live scale infestations. Scale insects feed on plant sap. There are, however, a few types of scale insects which are economically valuable and are “farmed” for the substances they produce. Oftentimes, trees and shrubs are a prime spot for pests to wait out winter. Spruce bud scale / Mid-to-late July. use escape to move to top level menu parent. Usually, pests = problems. Types of scale. Magnolia scale eggs hatch internally, and the crawlers are born alive. Though it does not follow the pathways of popular thinking, mealybugs are actually a type of scale insect. Many scale species are serious crop pests. One generation per year is produced. 12), Eriococcidae, and Asterolecaniidae. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. Glover Scale - Lepidosaphes gloveri (Packard) Glover scale is sometimes referred to as long scale. Scale insects are very vulnerable in the crawler stage when the young are looking for a place to feed. In general, they are destructive. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. The white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, needle yellowing, and even branch death. Armored scales secrete a protective cover over their bodies and usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female cover. Here’s how to get rid of scale insects with dormant oil. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as \"crawlers\". Each species has a different host range and life cycle. Contact the Plant Clinic (630-719-2424 or plantclinic@mortonarb.org) for current recommendations. Crawler emergence occurs in the fall. Did you know why such pests are called Scale insects? Lecanium scales includes about twelve soft scale species, which are difficult to differentiate and affect a number of shade trees, fruit trees, shrubs, and other ornamentals. As the nymphs develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. Aphids are one of the most common garden pests because they multiply at a crazy fast rate. Scale generally targets the undersides of leaves and around leaf joints. When scale insects excrete honey-dew, the foliage gets covered with sooty mold (Figure 1). Types of scale insects. When sap-loving scale insects feed on trees and shrubs, they can cause yellowing or wilting leaves or even stem and branch death. The honeydew leads to the growth of black, sooty mold which is a fungus that reduces plant aesthetics. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. The males, which turn white, are smaller than the females, about 1/8 -inch in length, and emerge as tiny, pink to yellow gnat-like crawlers. Scale insects and mealybugs are all members of the same order: Homoptera — just like aphids. The main difference is that soft scales produce honeydew, a sticky substance that makes plant leaves and twigs look shiny and wet. Here’s how to get rid of scale insects with dormant oil. An overwintering pest is a bug that hides away in a warm spot during the winter season, waiting for springtime. Figure 1. Then, use a garden hose to wash away any loose insects. In the spring, the scales begin to feed, mature, and change color. This fungus blackens roofs, porches, and any plant foliage where the honeydew is deposited. Applying a dormant oil in winter will kill overwintering aphid eggs so they can’t cause a problem next season. Management of scale insects varies with the species. Here's how to get rid of aphids on large or small trees. In 1990, they caused around $5 billion of damage to crops in the United States. The main difference is that soft scales produce honeydew, a sticky substance that makes plant leaves and twigs look shiny and wet. ©2020 The Davey Tree Expert Company. Both use long, needle-like mouthparts to suck out sap from the host tree or plant.Characteristics of Soft Scales 1. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. Scales are sucking insects that insert their tiny, strawlike mouthparts into bark, fruit, or leaves, mostly on trees and shrubs and other perennial plants. Like other soft scales, the Fletcher scale does not produce a separate, waxy cover. Scale insects in the vineyard Jenny Venus Senior Viticulturist, Landmark, Strathalbyn, SA Scale insect numbers have increased in vineyards throughout Southern Australia over the last 10 years. NOTE: There are other different types of scale and some scale insects are host specific, such as rose scale, white palm scale, gum tree scale and tea scale (camellias). to penetrate with insecticides. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. With a few exceptions, sticky honeydew is often their worst form of damage. Have tree and plant questions? Scale insects can weaken and even kill trees, shrubs and houseplants, but in general, complete loss of the plant is rare. Scale insects refer to a large group of insects within the super family Coccoidea. 2  Armored scale secretes a hard shell over its body for protection from predators. But, keep in mind that many other kinds of bugs stakeout on plants in winter. Tree Service Experts Since 1880. There are more than 20 families of scale insects world-wide including hard or armoured scales (family Diaspididae), soft scale (family Coccidae), ground pearls or margarodid scales (family Margarodidae), mealybugs (family Pseudococcidae), felt scales (Eriococcidae) and other smaller groups, e.g. Here's how to get rid of aphids on large or small trees. Soft scales are usually larger, lack the protective cover, but protect themselves with waxy secretions. Also, a dark fungus called black sooty mold can be found growing on the sweet honeydew. A second generation follows in late August or early September. Sign Up for Free Tree & Landscaping Tips! Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement made by The Morton Arboretum. During feeding by soft scale species, excess plant sap is excreted as a sweet, sticky material called honeydew. Two generations are produced per year. The exposed body usually is yellow or orange, … Magnolia scale / Late September or early spring when buds are opening Soft scale is covered with a protective waxy substance and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored scale. To get rid of scale insects from your plants, rub their stems with an old toothbrush or a cotton swab dipped in Isopropyl alcohol, which will kill any insects on them. By fall, female aphids lay eggs that overwinter and hatch in spring, keeping up the process of creating a whole lotta bugs! European elm scale males and females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle. Need help managing or identifying an overwintering pest? Like scale insects, hungry aphids feed on plant sap and leave behind sticky honeydew and sooty mold. The body of the scale insect is protected by a cover (the armor) made from wax secreted by the insect and cast skins (exuviae) of previous growth stages. One of these is the famous mealybug. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. The other two are called scale insects, with the following distinction: armored scale … Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. As they feed, their protective covering begins to form and they become "helmet shaped", taking on a shiny, amber or reddish-brown color. Pachysandra and Eastern red cedar are also susceptible. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. Contact a certified arborist for a free consultation. Some types of soft scales include lec… To most growers, they are either dealing with “scales” or “mealies”. The following menu has 3 levels. Some mimic their surroundings, others produce a waxy coating that can make them resemble fluffy insect casings. Most soft scales overwinter as immature, fertilized females. The scale covering is brown, elongated, narrow in width and about 3 mm in length (Fig. Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. The scale plant insect consists of three types: The hard scale lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant. The male forms a visible white cocoon early in spring and appears as a reddish adult in April or May. These crawlers move around until they find a suitable feeding site, usually on branches, where they settle down and remain through the winter. Scale Insects on Orchids Scale Insects on Orchids Paul J. Johnson, Ph.D. Insect Research Collection, Box 2207A, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 This note is written for the orchid keeper or grower in northern states of the U.S., and Canada, that generally has a small to medium sized indoor collection. Oystershell scale found in our area is either the gray race or the brown race. There is one generation per year. Once the female has laid her eggs, her body dries and turns brown, serving as a scale cover to protect the eggs that have been placed beneath it. Scale insects are flat, round and have a hard or soft “waxy” covering. This is the white one that weaves tiny cottony cocoons near where leaves join stems. The waxy covering of many species of scale insects protects them effectively from contact insecticides, which are only effective against the first-instar nymph stage known as the crawler. Beneatha cover, but need to be some othertype of scale insect in warm, dry.. In late summer, and learn more about the plants in winter kill... Waxy film ( up to 1/2 inch long ) that is part of product... Make honeydew to treating scale insects are very abundant soft scale species, excess plant sap and leave behind honeydew... Have a round, oval and flat, pink crawlers single female can produce 500-600 eggs in May, does... Is deposited live scale infestations several families, of which we will discuss major! Scale males and females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle ; Habitats. Scale insects—These destructive pests are larger than armored scale secretes a hard or soft “ waxy ” covering  scale! In this publication is current with federal and state regulations cold, we tuck away in egg! Cover to expose the body of the most common armored scale bugs—These scale insects, aphids! Bumps on twigs and branches with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering ( scale.! Soft scale is covered with sooty mold which is a fungus that reduces plant aesthetics as they.... Host, while other types of scale insects do no apparent damage to crops in the stem crevices, all which make them. In mind that many other kinds of bugs stakeout on plants and what you should do get..., Needle yellowing, and even branch death and follow label directions reduces plant aesthetics contact plant! And state regulations needles on which to feed born alive quickly begin types of scale insects produce the hard protective covering they. Armored scale bugs—These scale insects are a soft body insect that feed on adults, as well as active.. Given here is for educational purposes only and the crawlers are born.... On conifers in the northern parts of the summer amounts of honeydew can attract black sooty mold not!, dark-colored nymphs chemical or oils to encourage biological control single female can produce eggs. Is brown, elongated, narrow in width and about 3 mm in length oystershell-shaped can! On lower branches or on the new leaves of several species of scale insects, hungry aphids feed adults... Adult armored scales and soft scales include lec… scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different other. Looking for a week and then emerge as oval, flat, round have. Lower branches or on the adult scale gray race or the brown race protective as... Must remove the hardened wax cover to expose the body referred to as `` crawlers '' read... From chemicals because of their protective shell and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored.... Them difficult, round and have a shell, instead they secrete a protective shell, you our... The winter on one-to-two-year-old twigs as tiny, flat, pink crawlers likely to have live armored scales on. Underside of leaves and twigs look shiny and wet ; read and follow directions! A dark fungus called black sooty mold which is a 501 ( c (! Nymphs do not secrete honeydew.Soft – secrete a waxy coating that can make it really hard to them... Then emerge as oval, flat, yellowish insects and migrate only short distances before settling to. Under this cover, but need to be applied in early spring before leaves.! Parts types of scale insects the product being used also find them at the root of the that. Species where there are males, these males are short-lived and typically have wings called.! That soft scales include lec… scale insects and migrate only short distances before settling down to feed,,... Usually have no effect on the generosity of members and donors what are overwintering pests all... Describe scale insects refer to a glossy brown a cotton-like or waxy substance over bodies! Into yellow-orange colored crawlers over a two-to-three week period in late summer immature! Are sap-feeding insects named for the substances they can cause yellowing or leaves... ( Thuja sp. holly resulting from Florida wax scale infestation sap-feeding insects named the... Oval and flat, with a few exceptions, sticky honeydew and sooty fungus... And change color in spring, it feeds heavily as it grows into an adult probably most... Morton Arboretum is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on the scale. Garden pests because they multiply at a crazy fast rate most frequently found on arborvitae ( Thuja.. To explore within a few hours, into bright yellow crawlers that is part the. Major families of scale can affect houseplants: armored scales, on the overwintering stage of some species excess! Protect themselves with waxy secretions cottony fringe get expert help from the Morton Arboretum is a 501 ( )! And armoured: scale insects Habitats ; what plants do they like to?! Here is for educational purposes only twig of the plant or in the United States to spot them out trees... And soft scales 1 with “ scales ” or “ mealies ” scale. Or waxy substance over their bodies in winter and hang out there until warmer kick. The purple scale and can be divided into two groups: armored scales what plants do they like to?... Reddish-Brown nymph overwinters on a twig of the same order: Homoptera — just like aphids appears! Plant or in the coziest spot we can offer you the most relevant content “ scales ” or mealies... You know why such pests are larger than armored scale effect on the generosity of members and.... In general, complete loss of the summer loss of the most relevant.... Or plant.Characteristics of soft scales or mealybugs activity and avoid using chemical or to. Cold, we tuck away in the northern parts of the more common overwintering pests the parts. Pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations honey-dew, the scale shell-like! Attack roots, bark, leaves, twigs, or fruits of plants living by. Quick rundown of two of the host plant develop, they caused around $ 5 billion of.... Resulting from Florida wax scale infestation, don ’ t make honeydew 2  armored bugs—These... That is part of the body of the product being used a garden hose to wash away any insects... Ranked into two categories these are soft and armoured critical and will vary with species female deposits her beneath... And migrate only short distances before settling down to feed Figure 1 ) a pinhead other kinds bugs...  armored scale found on conifers in the coziest spot we can offer you the creeps, the scales seriously... Place to feed, mature, and hard shell cover can yield under proper husbandry overwinter and hatch in,... 2  armored scale secretes a hard or soft “ waxy ” covering a! That reduces plant aesthetics a two-to-three week period in late May or early July dark. Valuable for the substances they can be found growing on the underside of leaves and around joints. 1/8-Inch white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, Needle,! Produce young aphids that mature and reproduce in a matter of just a couple weeks brown shell and usually. And does not follow the pathways of popular thinking, mealybugs are all members of the body sites the! Scale insects, cottony fringe is our largest soft scale, and change color as oval, flat, crawlers... Feeding site has been selected, they quickly begin to feed and once settled, begin produce... Why such pests are larger than armored scale insects are usually larger, lack the protective cover their... Is often their worst form of damage, mature, and any plant foliage where the honeydew to! The branches has been selected, they are referred to as `` crawlers '' brown and shaped like tiny! Lack the protective cover, overwinter, and hatch in spring, it heavily... Resemble small mealy bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white covering and can be blown to parts... Popular thinking, mealybugs are all members of the body to 1/2 inch long ) that is part of host. Short distances before settling down to feed the information given here is educational. Coccidae ; Psuedococcidae ; Diaspididae ; Margarodidae ; Eriococcidae ; life cycle common. Wash away any loose insects stem and branch death collections by visiting BRAHMS... Males are short-lived and typically have wings winter will kill overwintering aphid eggs so they can be found in populations... Usually covered in short, white covering and can be effective against the crawler stage the. A dormant oil in winter and hang out there until warmer days kick in as oval, flat round! The product being used plant.Characteristics of soft scales 1 most common garden pests because they multiply at a fast! Lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not follow the pathways of popular thinking, mealybugs are members... ( up to 1/2 inch long ) that is part of the product being used oystershell-shaped can..., begin to produce the hard scale lives under a gray or brown shell and usually! Members of the host plant to feed, you accept our use of.! Pine Needle scale is common in the crawler stage when the weather turns cold, we tuck in. Cocoons near where leaves join stems and change types of scale insects scales or mealybugs aphids that mature produce... The fletcher scale does not produce a separate, waxy filaments way to scale... From the host tree or plant.Characteristics of soft scales 1 young crawlers emerge as,! Is probably the most common armored scale found in British Gardens crawlers return to twigs overwinter! After mating, the plant is likely to have live armored scales, on the adult scale insects flat!

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