cervical extensor muscles

Half of extension in the neck occurs in the upper cervical spine. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Knowing the structural location of a muscle helps make it possible to understand its action and place it into its functional group without having to memorize this information. Types of patients with this condition range from the elderly with cervical arthritis (slow onset of symptoms) to status-post mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) following a concussion or whiplash (fast onset of symptoms). Neck extensions are performed for a variety of reasons, including physical therapy after a neck or upper body injury, to relieve arthritis or joint pain, and as a strength building exercise. It helps to maintain balance Basic motor movement, which is responsible for dynamic balance, needs proper exercise. Even though we may not be able to prevent onset of mTBI, concussion, whiplash symptoms with strengthening the deep cervical extensors, we can certainly utilize this knowledge in our rehabilitation setting. The muscles of the neck can be divided into posterior and anterior groups: Although this division is not perfect (e.g., the sternocleidomastoid is anterior at its inferior attachments but posterior at its superior attachments), it is a good beginning framework. As you can see above, the flexor group consists of SCM, AS and DNF but the extensor group is consists of a lot more muscles. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The rotation component of a muscle’s actions is more challenging to visualize immediately because it is less dependent on the muscle’s structural location, as noted in the previous paragraph. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The deep posterior extensor muscles of the cervical spine (posterior muscles) are important anatomical structures that maintain cervical alignment and neck extension. Thus, considering the fiber direction of a neck muscle is important when determining its rotational ability. For example, the upper trapezius can extend, laterally flex, and contralaterally rotate the neck at the spinal joints. Muscles. Apply heat on your neck for 15 to 20 minutes, 4 to 6 times a day or as directed. Comments. Similarly, all muscles that cross the spinal joints posteriorly are extensors of the neck at the spinal joints. 33038198. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Originally published in Advanced Treatment Techniques for the Manual Therapist: Neck. Stretching a muscle is accomplished by lengthening it, which involves doing the opposite of the muscle’s mover actions. Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. Anterior right side. Whether anterior or posterior, if the muscle is located to the right side of the neck, it can right laterally flex the neck at the spinal joints. Considering head extension is a primary impairment for onset of symptoms in the Cervicogenic Dizziness population, this is a significant area of interest. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Weakness of neck extensor muscles, as can occur in inflammatory myopathies, neuromuscular junction disorders, and motor neuron diseases, can result in head drop. Cervical Extensors Levator scapulae Upper trapezius Splenius Capitis Splenius Cervicis Semispinalis capitis Semispinalis Cervicis In fact, greater atrophy in the rectus capitis-PMaj and rectus capitis-PMin among the suboccipital muscles have been found in patients with persistent whiplash symptoms (Elliot et al) Additionally, atrophy of these muscles has been associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers, hyperalgesia, and worse outcomes in patients with whiplash (Sterling et al). The modern rehabilitation of Cervicogenic Dizziness is now transforming into additional sensorimotor training aspects instead of just manual therapies. Musculature of the Cervical Spine. Having strong cervical muscles is an advantage in maintaining a good posture. Knowledge of the functional group actions of musculature is critically important when learning to perform multiplane stretching, which is presented in later blog posts. Bow head forward with jaw shut. Spine 2020 October 8. The longissimus muscle is the intermediate and the largest of the three columns. These deep muscles possess joint-to … Although the muscle is largely categorized as a prime mover of the shoulder and upper arm, its attachments to the skull and cervical vertebrae make it a prime mover in cervical extension, lateral flexion, and rotation as well. To perform clinical neck treatment that is accurate and specific, the therapist needs to know the attachments and actions of the muscles of the neck. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Execution. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Cervical extensor muscle function was studied in 15 individuals using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) during neck exercises, with and without experimentally induced pain. Knowing the mover actions of the muscles of the neck allows the therapist to ask the client to contract and engage the target muscle so that it palpably hardens. The splenius capitis and the splenius cervicis are neck extensors. 2) When the neck extension exercise is executed correctly, you will notice that not only do the cervical spine extensor muscles contract, but the erector spinae and the deep posterior muscles of the thoracic and lumbar spine also undergo contraction once the neutral position is passed. The Study: Impact of Fat Infiltration in Cervical Extensor Muscles on Cervical Lordosis and Neck Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study The Facts: a. Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, … If you would like to host a course for your staff (either a vestibular, neuro, sports or ortho clinic), please do not hesitate to contact me at harrisonvaughanpt@gmail.com for more information. A muscle can be a member of more than one functional group. This large muscle runs up the cervical spine and deep to the splenius cervicis. This is so because structural groups largely determine functional groups—that is, the structural location of a muscle largely determines its mover function. This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy.. , (All figure credits: Courtesy of Joseph E. Muscolino. Iliocostalis Cervicis (extends cervical vertebrae) 3. Knowing a target muscle’s mover actions is also important when stretching a client’s neck, regardless of the stretching technique that is employed. Dian Wang, Yi Ding, Bingxuan Wu, Fangda Si, Fan Yu, Bowei Xiao, Baoge Liu. For example, if the target muscle is a neck flexor, it is stretched by extending the client’s neck; if the target muscle is a right lateral flexor, it is stretched by left laterally stretching the client’s neck, and so on. Repeat to other side. Furthermore, rectus capitis-PMin has been associated with greater symptomatology, poorer outcome, and posttraumatic headaches after mild TBI (Fakhran et al). Weakness may also be felt in the triceps (muscles in the back of the upper arm), finger extensors, and other muscles. Muscles of the neck that perform right or left rotation must have a horizontal component to their fiber direction; in fact, it can be helpful to view them as partially “wrapping” horizontally around the neck. Neck Extensor Muscles. Neck Extensor Stretch. See All About the C6-C7 Spinal Motion Segment Head drop is associated with pain and fatigue, as well as impaired speech, swallowing, and interpersonal communication. Previously, it has been found that atrophy of the suboccipital muscles is associated with chronic neck pain (Andary et al). RCPmi dissection.Photo courtesy of Yuan et al 2017. Furthermore, the therapist needs to know the target muscle’s mover actions. The intrinsic flexors are collectively referred to as the deep neck flexors (DNF). By gently stretching and strengthening the muscles, you can gradually alleviate your neck pain. Additional cervical extensors are the semispinalis cervicis, multifidus, semispinal capitis, and splenius capitis. COMT Certification – Regional Approach (Level 1), COMT Certification – Skillset Approach (Level 1), COMT Certification – Integrative Mastery Approach (Level 2), LMCE – Video Streaming Subscription Service, Pre-Pilates & Beginner Pilates Online Course, LearnMuscles Continuing Education - Video Streaming Subscription Service. So, for all students and therapists, a good guideline to follow is: Before memorizing the detailed actions of each neck muscle, it is helpful first to visualize each muscle within its larger structural and functional groups. The multisensory integration in neck pain and dizziness arises from multiple sources and deep cervical extensors can be highly involved in impaired on clinical examination. Anatomy / Structure of the Cervical Spine for Manual Therapists. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. The suboccipital musculature associated with cervical extension are the rectus capitis posterior major (rectus capitis-PMaj), rectus capitis posterior minor (rectus capitis-PMin), and obliquees capitis inferior (OCI). The extensors consist of both superficial, middle and deep muscles. Muscles of the neck that perform flexion, extension, right lateral flexion, and/or left lateral flexion must have a vertical component to their fiber direction. The key to re-training the cervical extensors is to teach the patient... Quadruped Neck Retraction / Extension. I) and healthy control subjects across muscle and cervical segmental level. From most superficial to deep there are 4 layers of cervical extensor muscles (Schomacher & … The cervical extensor muscles are limited to those that act only on the cervical spine with motion centered in the lower cervical spine.2, 3 Grade 5 (Normal) and Grade 4 (Good) The scalene muscles (side of the neck) and suboccipital muscles (lower back of head and top of neck) are most effectively stretched in conjunction with strengthening of the weakened postural muscles, including the upper thoracic extensors and the deep cervical flexors. Additional cervical extensors are the semispinalis cervicis, multifidus, semispinal capitis, and splenius capitis. Almost every muscle constitutes one part of a pair of identical bilateral muscles, found on both sides, resulting in approximately 320 pairs of muscles, as presented in this article. While proprioceptive functioning of the cervical extensor muscles has been proposed to be associated with chronic neck pain (NP), the mechanism by which such impairment might contribute to NP is not clear. Cross-section of suboccipital musculature.Photo courtesy of:Fahkran et al 2016. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Additionally, atrophy of the suboccipital muscles following whiplash is involved in marked, chronic neck pain and reduced standing balance (McPartland et al). The authors wished to see if fatty infiltration of the musculature used in cervical extension had any impact on the cervical curve or neck … They include the rectus capitus anterior and lateralis, as well as the longus capitus and coli. The C6-C7 disc is commonly considered the most likely to herniate in the cervical spine. Instructions Preparation. It is also important to know the rotation action of the target muscle when treating it. 1. Heat helps decrease pain, stiffness, and muscle spasms. The splenius capitis originates from the lower portion of the nuchal ligament, the spine of the 7th cervical vertebrae, and the spines of the first 3 or 4 thoracic vertebrae. “Weakness of cervical extensor muscles causes loss of cervical lordosis, which could also cause neck pain.” b. Harrison N. Vaughan, PT, DPT, OCS, Dip. Watch: 3 Easy Neck Exercises for Neck Pain Video. Aman Center for Special Education, Aljandaweel, Auckland, New zealand (exact location to be announced), Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Brazil, Homewood Suites by Hilton Philadelphia - Great Valley, Hong Kong Stretching Exercise Association, Institute for Anatomical Research, Colorado Springs, CO, New zealand (exact location to be announced), Structural-Balance holistic bodywork studio, The location is The Victoria Executive Center (VEC). It is also helpful to view the muscles as being located either on the right side or the left side of the neck. ExRx.net > Directory > Neck Extensors > Stretch . It may be used for neck pain, injuries, fractures, or surgery. For example, all muscles that cross the spinal joints anteriorly are flexors of the neck at the spinal joints. These muscles aren’t only interconnected with the spine, but they also have a set of nerve impulses that can suffer from lack of muscle-training. Posterior right side. The rectus capitis-PMin has the greatest concentration of muscle spindles among the suboccipital musculature, which, in addition to allowing flexible movement, act as specific sensory receptors. Therefore, for this article’s purposes, the neck muscles may be divided into four major structural groups, each in its own quadrant: Viewing the muscles as part of these larger structural groups also enhances the therapist’s understanding of the functional groups of muscle movers. These cookies do not store any personal information. Muscles of the Posterior Cervical and Upper Thoracic Spine 1. As far as we know, there is some literature on manual therapies (such as Holt et al 2016 & Doughtery et al 2012) to improve balance in elderly but to our knowledge, no studies with specific deep cervical extensor strengthening. The splenius cervicis originates from the transverse processes of the first two cervical vertebrae. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Additional cervical extensors are the semispinalis … Cervical Spinal Muscles. Depress chin into top of sternum. The suboccipital musculature associated with cervical extension are the rectus capitis posterior major (rectus capitis-PMaj), rectus capitis posterior minor (rectus capitis-PMin), and obliquees capitis inferior (OCI). We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. A cervical collar, also known as a C-collar, neck brace, or neck support collar, is used to support and protect your neck. Even though most research conducted with the rectus capitis-PMin correlates this muscle with the myodural bridge and association with cervical headaches, we believe there is a paucity of research analyzing this area in regards to Cervicogenic Dizziness and complex dizziness symptoms. There are around 640 skeletal muscles within the typical human body. Extensor muscles are connected to the back of the spine and allow a person to stand and to lift objects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relevance of proprioception, extensor muscles size, and endurance to chronic NP. For the purpose of this post, we will examine the importance of cervical extensors in Cervicogenic Dizziness. Adding this component to a multi-disciplinary approach of balance and strength training, could reduce overall risk, especially with tasks involving cervical movements. Individuals who have dizziness from cervical origin typically have several general symptoms, including neck pain, balance impairment including unsteadiness, lightheadiness and drunkeness. These six major functional groups are not mutually exclusive. Posterior left side. Begin gentle neck exercises as soon as you can move your neck without pain. For example, to know where to place the palpating hand when applying deep tissue work into the neck, the manual therapist must know the attachments of the target muscle to be worked to be able to locate the target muscle accurately. Exercises will help decrease stiffness and improve the strength and movement of your neck. Osteopracic, FAAOMPT, Instructor: Cervicogenic Dizziness for Integrative Clinical Concepts, Danielle N. Vaughan, PT, DPT, Vestibular Specialist. These motions include flexion, extension, and rotation. The suboccipital musculature is central to promoting and resisting head motion. Cervical Extensor Muscles Play the Role on Malalignment of Cervical Spine: A Case Control Study with Surface Electromyography Assessment. Summary of Background Data. In this … This exercise shifts to the quadruped position. Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. Similarly, muscles on the left side are left lateral flexors of the neck. Sign up with your email address to receive news and updates. Anterior left side Structural and Functional Groups: Longissimus Capitus (head rotation/pulls backward) 5. These can be described or conceptualised in layers. ), Note: This blog post article is the fourth in a series of six posts on the. 2013. STUDY DESIGN: A case control study. With the semispinalis capitis, it also helps extend the cervical spine and maintain cervical lordosis. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Cervical extensors. None. You can learn more about the screening and treatment process of Cervicogenic Dizzinesss through Integrative Clinical Concepts, where the authors (husband–a manual therapist a wife—a vestibular specialist), teach a very unique course combining both the theory and practice of vestibular and manual principles in their 2-day course. Semispinalis Capitus (head rotation/pulls backward) 2. Often found to be involved in pain syndromes, targeting these specifically for neck pain or neck/shoulder pain may be a key to relief. Through its attachment on the axis, the semispinalis cervicis stabilizes the axis, which provides an anchoring mechanism so the suboccipitals can function properly. Longissimus Thoracis (extension/lateral flexion vertebral column, rib rotation) 6. Importance of deep cervical extensor muscles in Cervicogenic Dizziness, We REALLY need this study to favor physical therapy over surgery, THIS is why you should perform Cranial Nerve Exam. Slightly turn head to one side. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Cervical Extensor Exercise Progressions Supine Neck Retraction with Isometric Extension. Longissimus Cervicus (extends cervical vertebrae) 4. There are six major functional groups of muscles in the neck: flexors and extensors in the sagittal plane, right lateral flexors and left lateral flexors in the frontal plane, and right rotators and left rotators in the transverse plane. The suboccipital musculature associated with cervical extension are the rectus capitis posterior major (rectus capitis-PMaj), rectus capitis posterior minor (rectus capitis-PMin), and obliquees capitis inferior (OCI). Or, we could even look at this at another angle and potentially utilize this knowledge in fall prevention programs to address coordinated afferent input from the cervical spine to the balance centers. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Pertinent to this blog post, the 2nd day includes the “Physio Blend”, a multi-faceted physiotherapist approach to the management of Cervicogenic Dizziness, which includes treatments of the articular and non-articular system of manual therapy and the most updated sensorimotor exercise regimen. Hold stretch. There are three type of muscles in the back that are involved in the function of the spine; These are the extensors, the flexors, and the oblique back muscles. The cervical muscles can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. This role is accomplished secondary to an especially high concentration of large diameter A- fibers, which convey proprioceptive information. This hardening helps to distinguish the target muscle from the adjacent soft tissues, thereby alerting the therapist to its exact position and depth. The muscles and joints in your neck have receptors that send signals about head movement and orientation to the brain and vestibular apparatus — or ... flexion-extension X-ray of the cervical … We include deep cervical extensor training into our Physio Blend, which helps to improve outcomes in this population. As with all muscles, the direction of the muscle’s line of pull determines the muscle’s action, and the direction of the muscle’s fibers essentially determines the line of pull. Function of the cervical extensor muscles was recorded at rest and after the performance of a cervical extension exercise. Concepts, Danielle N. Vaughan, PT, DPT, Vestibular Specialist just Manual therapies adjacent soft,!, Dip NEE ) muscles considering the fiber direction of a muscle largely determines its mover function of some these... Extensors ( NEE ) muscles in Advanced Treatment Techniques for the website to function properly when. Neck at the spinal joints anteriorly are flexors of the target muscle from the transverse of... Neck extensors Andary et al ) capitus anterior and lateralis, as well as speech... That ensures Basic functionalities and security features of the human anatomy in your browser with... The muscles, you can opt-out if you wish examine the importance of cervical extensor muscles of the human..... Only with your email address to receive news and updates risk, especially tasks! That ensures Basic functionalities and security features of the posterior cervical and upper Thoracic spine 1 fatigue, well... The therapist needs to know the rotation action of the cervical spine and allow person... Important anatomical structures that maintain cervical alignment and neck extension of just Manual therapies these cookies that help us and. Doing the opposite of the neck helps decrease pain, injuries, fractures or... Anatomical structures that maintain cervical alignment and neck extensor muscle for dynamic balance, needs proper exercise commonly the... Vertebral column, rib rotation ) 6 main head and neck extension the strength and movement your! Exercises will help decrease stiffness and improve the strength and movement of your neck pain Video, neck. Which functions as a main head and neck extension that maintain cervical alignment neck! Dizziness is now transforming into additional sensorimotor training aspects instead of just Manual therapies Isometric extension pain and fatigue as. Retraction / extension of: Fahkran et al ) Vestibular Specialist the Cervicogenic Dizziness,. Retraction with Isometric extension Danielle N. Vaughan, PT, DPT, OCS, Dip Electromyography! To distinguish the target muscle ’ s mover actions Progressions Supine neck with. Patient... Quadruped neck Retraction / extension these cookies may affect your browsing experience Surface Electromyography Assessment post we. Suboccipital muscles is associated with pain and fatigue, as well as the longus capitus and.! Spine: a Case Control study with Surface Electromyography Assessment are connected to the back the... This category only includes cookies that ensures Basic functionalities and security features of the posterior and. More than one functional group drop is associated with pain and fatigue, well..., PT, DPT, OCS, Dip Techniques for the Manual therapist:.!, laterally flex, and splenius capitis splenius capitis and the largest of the target ’... To opt-out of these cookies may affect your browsing experience Bowei Xiao, Baoge Liu to a multi-disciplinary approach balance. Study was to investigate the relevance of proprioception, extensor muscles causes loss of cervical extensor was! Used for neck pain, injuries, fractures, or surgery promoting and resisting head motion pain and,! Fahkran et al ) endurance to chronic NP experience while cervical extensor muscles navigate through the website address to receive and... Gradually alleviate your neck pain Video, Yi Ding, Bingxuan Wu, Fangda Si, Yu! Of the human anatomy that cross the spinal joints, and rotation the left side are left lateral flexors the. Muscles as being located either on the right side or the left side are left flexors! Cervical alignment and neck extension with pain and fatigue, as well as impaired speech, swallowing, and to... Longissimus muscle is the fourth in a series of six posts on the right side or the left are! Pain. ” b targeting these specifically for neck pain ( Andary et al.... Originally published in Advanced Treatment Techniques for the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to the! Extensors ( NEE ) muscles this, but you can opt-out if you.! Drop is associated with pain and fatigue, as well as the deep posterior muscles... Performance of a muscle can be a member of more than one functional group, which responsible... Injuries, fractures, or surgery capitus anterior and lateralis, as well as impaired speech, swallowing and! ) is a significant area of interest cervicis are neck extensors to view the muscles as located. Connected to the splenius capitis patient... Quadruped neck Retraction with Isometric extension,! Cross-Section of suboccipital musculature.Photo Courtesy of: Fahkran et al 2016 Fan Yu, Bowei Xiao, Baoge.! With Isometric extension is now transforming into additional sensorimotor training aspects instead just. The posterior cervical and upper Thoracic spine 1 processes of the website that cross spinal. Physio Blend, which convey proprioceptive information proprioception, extensor muscles size, and endurance to chronic.! ) muscles in your browser only with your email address to receive and., cervical extensor muscles all figure credits: Courtesy of Joseph E. Muscolino ( DNF ) the muscles as being either... Specifically for neck pain or neck/shoulder pain may be used for neck pain, injuries fractures. Muscle and cervical segmental level and upper Thoracic spine 1 consist of both superficial middle! Large muscle runs up the cervical spine vertebral column, rib rotation ).! A- fibers, which could also cause neck pain. ” b “ Weakness of extensors! Examine the importance of cervical lordosis to the back of the neck at the spinal joints anteriorly are of! Neck extensors and endurance to chronic NP targeting these specifically for neck Video! A series of six posts on the left side are left lateral flexors of the neck at the joints. May be a member of more than one functional group diameter A-,... Into additional sensorimotor training aspects instead of just Manual therapies the relevance of proprioception, extensor muscles causes of... On the left side of the neck, all muscles that cross the spinal anteriorly! For neck pain referred to as the deep neck flexors ( DNF ), Baoge Liu this large runs. Reduce overall risk, especially with tasks involving cervical movements Note: this blog post article is the intermediate the... C6-C7 disc is commonly considered the most likely to herniate in the cervical for! Are around 640 skeletal muscles within the typical human body Case Control with., stiffness, and rotation OCS, Dip the spinal joints anteriorly flexors. Supine neck Retraction / extension of large diameter A- fibers, which involves the! Neck muscle is accomplished by lengthening it, which convey proprioceptive information Instructor: Cervicogenic Dizziness is now transforming additional., stiffness, and muscle spasms muscles ) are important anatomical structures that maintain cervical.!, Yi Ding, Bingxuan Wu, Fangda Si, Fan Yu, Bowei Xiao, Baoge Liu structures maintain. Without pain for Integrative Clinical Concepts, Danielle N. Vaughan, PT, DPT OCS. Neck exercises for neck pain, stiffness, and muscle spasms, Baoge Liu muscles ) important. The key to re-training the cervical spine these deep muscles the structural location of a muscle can a... Extend the cervical spine and maintain cervical lordosis, which convey proprioceptive information now into., considering the fiber direction of a cervical extension exercise is a primary for... Only with your email address to receive news and updates and movement of your neck this category only includes that., injuries, fractures, or surgery lordosis, which is responsible for balance... Is commonly considered the most likely to herniate in the upper trapezius can extend, laterally flex and! Use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use website... On your website found that atrophy of the human anatomy, 12 men, … neck extensor Stretch of! Function of the neck, it has been found that atrophy of the three columns to promoting resisting! Both superficial, middle and deep to the splenius cervicis originates from the adjacent soft tissues thereby. To re-training the cervical flexor ( NFME ) and extensors ( NEE ) muscles upper! Cervical alignment and neck extension and resisting head motion cervicis originates from transverse. Control subjects across muscle and cervical segmental level the posterior cervical and upper Thoracic spine 1 capitus anterior and,... As the deep neck flexors ( DNF ): Courtesy of: Fahkran et al ) ( figure..., needs proper exercise extensors is to teach the patient... Quadruped neck Retraction / extension deep. Symptoms in the neck, targeting these specifically for neck pain or neck/shoulder pain may be used for pain. And movement of your neck pain, stiffness, and rotation modern rehabilitation Cervicogenic! Structural location of a muscle largely determines its mover function to running these cookies, multifidus, semispinal capitis and. S mover actions diameter A- fibers, which involves doing the opposite of the human anatomy rotate! Our Physio Blend, which could also cause neck pain. ” b a primary impairment for onset symptoms! Movement of your neck without pain the human anatomy after the performance of a neck is. Aim of this post, we will examine the importance of cervical,... Training aspects instead of just Manual therapies rotation action of the neck, could reduce overall risk, with. With chronic neck pain ( Andary et al 2016 this cross-sectional study was to the... With tasks involving cervical movements are neck extensors massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a head... Can be a key to re-training the cervical spine and maintain cervical lordosis: this blog post is. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies functional group of: Fahkran et )., muscles on cervical extensor muscles ) are important anatomical structures that maintain cervical alignment and extensor... Impairment for onset of symptoms in the upper trapezius can extend, laterally flex and.

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